What determines the price for charging an electric vehicle?
The main component determining the charging price is the cost of electricity.
This cost is the combination of the following items:
Cost of the primary material, set by each electricity utility on the free market;
Two regulated components: general system costs and network costs, which are set by the Italian Regulatory Authority for Energy, Networks and Environment (ARERA)
Taxes and VAT must be added to the cost of electricity.
The cost of charging depends on the type of account providing the charge:
Domestic charging, i.e. using the electricity system of a residence (the same used for household electrical goods) – the tariff in question is a domestic rate and is paid by the client who has undertaken the electricity contract for the residence.
Private charging, i.e.using an electricity system that is separate to the system of a residence (e.g. a separate garage) – the tariff in question is the UDA LT rate for Low Tension Other Users and is paid by the client who has undertaken the electricity contract for that garage.
Public charging, a specific tariff was set by ARERA for public charging infrastructures in 2011; this is paid by the supplier of the charging service to the utility company with which the contract has been stipulated.
The price of charging at columns open to the public is higher than that of domestic charging (when the household system is used) because public charging falls under the category of non-residential use. This means that the regulated components in the energy cost, in particular the general system costs, are higher than for domestic charging, where the household pays a domestic tariff most convenient to their use. Furthermore, the price of public charging also includes costs relative to column installation and maintenance, and management charges incurred in providing the service to the user (e.g. payment systems, maintenance etc.).
To illustrate the difference in the regulated components, please see below for general system costs (the most significant part of the price) applied to the different charging categories, considering for each category an average of 10,000 km/year for an electric vehicle:
52€/MWh for domestic charging, using a residential contract (considering consumption rates of 4.2 MWh, of which 1.5 MWh for EV charging, and 6kW of power provided);
129 €/MWh for private charging in a garage with non-residential contract, (considering consumption rates of 1.5 MWh for EV charging, and 3kW of power provided;
113€/MWh for public charging (component specifically fixed by the Authority for the charging columns open to the public).
 General system costs are the total of the various tariff components, which correspond to different taxes connected to the national electricity system
 Network costs include the cost of transporting electricity and the management of the meter by network providers